The following presentations from Tuesday’s R&D grower meeting in Te Puke are now available on the KVH website:
Psa-V continues to spread throughout the Kerikeri region with 32 out of 106 KPINS now testing Psa-V positive. KVH staff recently visited positive orchards in Kerikeri with growers and orchard management staff.
In most cases disease expression has continued to be relatively slow. However, in one location inoculum levels have clearly increased and disease expression in Hort16A has increased significantly. This has led to a number of part blocks being removed. These orchards are carrying out weekly monitoring and removal of infected material, followed by weekly spraying.
Growers are advised to be aggressive with removal to help reduce the rate of spread and to protect young Gold3 grafts. The continued wet weather has clearly been a factor in disease spread, and unless the region sees a long period of warm, dry weather soon, growers can expect expression to continue to accelerate.
KVH recommends growers actively monitor their orchards, remove signs of infection and to contact packhouses or KVH staff for support if required.
In late 2013, Chile suffered one of its most damaging frost events in 80 years—causing almost $1 billion damage to fruit crops and reducing kiwifruit export volumes by over 50%.
Further impacts from this frost event are also expected in the form of Psa-V, with the number of positive orchards expected to increase when national surveys are carried out later this year. It is expected the colder areas near the mountains and further from the coast will be the most severely affected.
Over the past few years, Chile has seen a steady increase in the number of positive orchards as shown in the graph above.
Symptoms at newly-detected orchards are often severe, leading local authorities to believe these infections are not new, but have been undetected in previous monitoring rounds.
The Chilean Kiwifruit Committee states the industry needs a greater permanent awareness to biosecurity, and orchard management complacency is the biggest problem facing the Chilean industry.
Zespri’s Focus Orchard Network (FON) field days are scheduled from 7-21 October and include the following topics:
Click here to find the FON field day coming to your area
During spring, Psa-V symptoms can change quickly as sap rises. Therefore, ongoing monitoring of orchards is essential at this time of year.
Monitoring of male vines, particularly in areas where males were affected by Psa-V in previous years, is recommended to allow growers to make early assessments of likely artificial pollination needs. Pollen suppliers have indicated stocks are lower than in past years.
Following recent orchards visits, KVH has prepared the following observation reports:
Last month, ACVM granted a limited label claim to a second CPPU (forchlorofenuron) product – Caplit™ – for the control of Psa-V in kiwifruit.
Zespri has updated the CPPU User Guide and Crop Protection Standard to reflect this change; and KVH has included Caplit™ in its Recommended Product List.
The use conditions are the same for both Caplit™ and Ambitious® 10SL, so growers are prompted to add Caplit™ to their Seasonal Management Wall Chart alongside Ambitious® 10SL. Please note the rate for Caplit™ is 50-75g/100l.
Due to concerns around fruit deformation observed on Gold varieties off-shore, CPPU products should not be applied to Gold varieties.
CPPU products are not systemic and therefore good coverage is required. Apply approximately 5–7 days prior to an infection event. CPPU should not be applied within seven days of the first flowers opening on an orchard. Extreme care should be taken to mitigate the risk of spray drift.
KVH will present a Psa-V spring update at next week’s R&D grower meeting in Te Puke. This will include a national Psa-V update and infection management advice.
When: 3pm, Tuesday 30 September
Where: The Orchard Church, Te Puke
Last week, Grosafe Chemicals Ltd confirmed their copper Hydroxide product Hortcare® Copper Hydroxide 300 received BioGro certification, providing organic growers with another tool in the fight against Psa-V.
Zespri will include this change when they update the Crop Protection Standard.
As always, organic growers are reminded to confirm the BioGro status of all products prior to use, and ensure their ‘BioGro Organic Management Plan Inputs’ list remains updated.
Orchard sites that experienced colder autumn and winter periods are reporting a higher incidence of Psa-V symptoms this spring.
Wanganui, Waikato, and Waihi sites, which experienced frosts shortly after harvest and also had a number of frost events with temperatures below zero for extended periods, are reporting increased levels of symptoms in Hayward males including Chieftan.
Late growth which was not fully mature, or growth that was damaged through autumn storms, is showing higher incidence of secondary symptoms.
Growers are recommended to particularly focus on colder areas of their orchard when monitoring to determine individual orchard impacts.
This week KVH held a meeting with pollen providers. Available pollen across the industry is around 50 percent lower than last year (which was not a good year for pollen). This could potentially cause problems with supply for 2014 if male vines are compromised due to Psa-V infection.
Growers are urged to have their early male flowers picked for pollen and if possible, support pollen providers by supplying flowers and labour. Contact your local pollen provider if you are able to help the industry build up supplies. Click here for a list of registered pollen providers on the KVH website.
All those intending to operate a pollen mill this season are required to register with KVH here.
As advised in the KVH Bulletin (24 April), the Plant Market Access Council (PMAC) including Zespri and KVH have been working on a project which aims to pre-emptively agree market access conditions with key markets in the event of future incursions of significant fruit fly species in New Zealand.
The project includes developing protocols which demonstrate how New Zealand will manage a fruit fly incursion and how exporters will therefore be able to reliably export fruit fly free product minimising any trade disruptions.
For trading partners to agree to these protocols, which if a breeding population of fruit fly is found would be based on cold disinfestation of fruit, the industry must be able to demonstrate their own procedures for implementing any agreed protocols.
Therefore, ISG has recently agreed to establish a small industry working group to identify and address associated operational issues.
The objectives for this working group will be to:
It is essential for our industry to plan for what would need to be implemented, often at very short notice, in order to minimise market disruptions.
It’s important to note that while MPI are beginning the negotiations, it will likely take years for some countries to agree to these protocols.
Growers are required to have the below records available for their GAP audit this year. Note the numbers below refer to Zespri GAP Control Points.
3.1 Purchased propagation material (nursery stock, budwood etc. coming onto your orchard)
3.4 Supply of budwood (if budwood has been supplied from your orchard)
3.5 Supply of plants, seedlings, fruit or seeds for propagation (if nursery plants, rootstock etc. has been supplied from your orchard)
8.1 Orchard Management Plan
8.8 disposal of Psa-V infected material