- Psa-V Orchard Management Plans
- Mandatory Monitoring grower requirements
- Psa-V Risk Compass
- KVH Protocols
- KVH Bulletin
- Maps and regional info
- KVH Psa-V Risk Model
- Seasonal advice
- Calendar of events
- Site map
Under the National Psa-V Pest Management Plan (NPMP) growers in all regions are required to apply protective spray products with proven efficacy against Psa-V to their vines.
KVH, in conjunction with Zespri, have analysed grower spray diaries for the 2013–2014 season and it appears a number of orchards have not applied a protective spray product (see graph above). It is possible that some sprays, particularly through the dormant period, have not been entered in the spray diary.
It is important spray diaries are kept up to date and include all sprays applied to an orchard over the entire growing season. KVH will follow up with orchards that don’t appear to be applying protective sprays.
Certified kiwifruit plants under the ‘Core Standard’ of the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme (KPCS) are now available for growers to order.
The first two nurseries selling KPCS certified plants are now listed on the KVH website. Two more nurseries also being audited under the Core Standard are awaiting testing results and are expected to be included on this list shortly.
A list of kiwifruit nurseries including those who are now part of the KPCS, is available on the KVH website here. Purchasing certified plants gives growers assurance they are investing in the best possible start for their new vines. Growers are reminded to order plants well in advance to ensure that nurseries can meet industry demands.
KVH have engaged Sapere, an independent organisation to develop a report on the industry response to the Psa-V incursion, including lessons learnt and potential future improvements. The findings and recommendations from the report will be used for future biosecurity planning.
A number of key industry people have been identified to potentially assist Sapere with the report and these people will be contacted in due course.
KVH will keep industry updated with the development of the report and will publish once complete.
Last week KVH staff visited the Auckland Biosecurity Centre to see first-hand MPI’s detector dog programme.
MPI have their own detector dog breeding programme which is a cost effective way of producing fit for purpose biosecurity detector dogs. The breeding programme now has 40 dog teams operating throughout New Zealand at various ports of entry.
MPI now have detector dogs at all cruise ship first port of arrivals and many second port of arrivals. Detector dogs are now used to screen disembarking passengers from 150 cruise ships. This has resulted in the seizure of 500 risk items, of which 76 percent was fresh produce (of particular concern given its capacity to host fruit fly).
Detector dogs have been a fundamental component of biosecurity interventions at the border for many years. MPI is now also working to train a new line of dogs for a different purpose, post-border incursions. These incursion dogs can be used in the field and trained to detect any pest and may be especially useful for pests for which there are no pheromone traps available.
Photo: Darcy, a three month old beagle from the breeding programme who is likely to become a biosecurity detector dog.
Following the discovery of Psa-V in New Zealand in 2010, the Import Health Standard (IHS) for pollen was immediately amended by the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to prohibit the import of kiwifruit pollen. To date, the importation of pollen into New Zealand remains prohibited as the potential risk of introducing further variants of Psa-V and other pathogens is unknown.
After KVH raised concerns about the possibility of Psa-V impacting male kiwifruit vines and creating a pollen shortage, MPI was asked if there was a safe way to import pollen.
MPI sought input from a Technical Working Group made up of experts from the kiwifruit (incl. KVH, Zespri and other independents), bee and pollen industries. The aim of this Working Group and subsequent MPI analysis was to determine the risk posed by imported pollen; and the potential to import it, preferably in emergency situations only (e.g. if there were to be a significant shortage of pollen in New Zealand).
MPI have drafted an assessment of the potential for Psa to be associated with imported pollen and the potential consequences if Psa (Psa-V or other variants) was to enter and establish in New Zealand. Other pathogens which may also be associated with imported pollen, and which may impact on the kiwifruit or bee industries have been identified by MPI, but have not yet been assessed.
Following a meeting of the Working Group in mid-July, MPI is currently concluding its assessment of Psa and KVH expects an update on the assessment from MPI in the next couple of weeks. KVH believes it is very unlikely this process will result in the imported pollen ban being lifted as other pathogens associated with pollen still require careful assessment.
While New Zealand does not currently have a pollen shortage, a bad Psa year could possibly impact future pollen supply.
Therefore its essential growers plan ahead for future pollination requirements.
In the past 15 years, several dozen brown marmorated stink bugs have been intercepted at the New Zealand border, usually hailing from the United States, although the pest is native to China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan rather than the Americas.
Click here to read the full article on NZ Farmer.
Last week KVH held an audit debrief with packhouses; and as a result some changes have been made to KVH Protocol—Fruit Bins.
The main change allows postharvest operators in Recovery regions to have their cleaned and sanitised bins (destined for Whangarei, Kerikeri and NW Auckland) inspected by KVH now—before being placed in sealed coolstores for next harvest. This will avoid double-handling and save packhouses time and expense.
A KVH inspection sticker will be attached to checked bins so growers can identify them on arrival to the orchard next harvest. A percentage of these bins will again be inspected by KVH before being dispatched to orchards next season.
Crop Safety of Late Leaf Fall Copper Applications on Gold3—by HortEvaluation
A study was undertaken to determine whether copper applied with a superspreader or a penetrant adjuvant at late leaf fall causes phytotoxicity to buds. A second objective of this project was to evaluate efficacy for Psa disease control.
Click here for the final report (then select the project link at the top of the list).
KVH prepares an Operational Plan for the National Psa-V Pest Management Plan (NPMP) on an annual basis. This sets out how the NPMP will be implemented over the year ahead. It includes the KVH Board’s NPMP strategy, policies that guide how KVH will make decisions, the approach KVH will apply to achieve the NPMP objectives and budget and performance measures against which outcomes can be judged.
KVH must submit the Operational Plan to the Minister for Primary Industries, who checks it for consistency with the NPMP and is able to disallow all or parts of it should there be inconsistencies.
While not a statutory requirement, KVH is seeking any feedback on the Draft 2014 Operational Plan over the next three weeks. Please send any feedback to KVH by 5pm on Friday 15 August 2014. You can email your feedback to firstname.lastname@example.org or post to PO Box 4246, Mount Maunganui 3149.
Click here for the Draft 2014 Operational Plan.
A key message KVH is picking up during nursery visits relating to the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme (KPCS) is that growers are not providing nurseries with orders far enough in advance.
Without a reliable estimate on anticipated demand for the next season, nurseries take a conservative approach to avoid getting left with unsold stock.
Growers should order plants in as far advance as possible, preferably one year in advance to avoid any shortage in supply.
Additionally, growers should only be purchasing plants that have KVH certification accreditation or are registered with KVH. A list of nurseries and their status is available on the KVH website.
Regular monitoring is an important part of Psa -V prevention and management plans, particularly following wet, windy and frosty weather.
Growers on ‘Not Detected’ orchards, especially those in Exclusion regions, should be regularly monitoring their vines over winter and spring for signs of Psa-V infection. Those on Psa-V positive orchards should be monitoring to identify any canes and/or vines showing signs of infection which need to be removed to prevent spread of infection.
As part of KVH requirements under the NPMP we need to collect data and report on Psa-V progression to ensure the objectives of the plan are being meet. To meet these objectives we require growers to report their monitoring results.
August mandatory monitoring results from the following orchards must be submitted to KVH by 10 September 2014:
Note—Psa-V positive orchards in Recovery regions are encouraged to send in their results but this is not mandatory.
An updated online mandatory monitoring form will be available on the KVH website next week.
Following a recent de-brief, it was revealed KVH audited 100 percent of bins (14,863 bins) in the 2014 harvest season that were supplied to Whangarei, North-West Auckland and Kerikeri from Recovery region packhouses. More than 180 of these bins contained kiwifruit plant material and were returned to the packhouse for cleaning and sanitising. No bins containing plant material were sent to any orchards.
Before sending bins to other containment regions (Wanganui, Coromandel, Gisborne and Hawkes Bay) packhouses were asked to advise KVH, and a 10-20 percent sample of these bins were inspected by KVH auditors along with the packhouse sanitising and inspection systems.
KVH received no complaints from any growers about the cleanliness of the harvest bins delivered to their orchards.
Following the release of the Kiwifruit Industry Strategy Project (KISP) Vision document in August, a series of dedicated grower road shows will be held around the country, giving growers and industry an overview and update of the project. Growers are urged to get involved in the next phase of the project and attend these meetings.
Click here to see a full schedule of the KISP road shows
Rapid commercialisation of an integrated, biologically based management package for Psa-V
A follow up project aimed at validating the field efficacy of Trichoderma and Yeast Mix and determining the compatibility of the two yeast strains with a copper-based product. Also, to identify a suitable manufacturer of Trichoderma and Yeast Mix and a distribution partner in New Zealand in order to facilitate a ‘fast tracking’ process that would move both prototype BCAs towards commercialisation as quickly as possible, on the condition that significant disease reductions were achieved in field studies.
Click here for the report
As reported in the KVH Bulletin (19 June) ongoing testing as part of the KVH/Zespri R&D programme is underway to identify early any strains of Psa-V showing potential resistance to protective compounds.
The latest results from Verified Lab Services (VLS) for Streptomycin/copper resistance testing confirms to date, no resistance has been detected.
This is an ongoing testing programme. In future we are looking to improve the testing process by including more KPIN samples and extending outside the Te Puke region.
Growers who have used KeyStrepto™ or copper and would like to be part of the resistance monitoring programme by allowing samples to be collected from their orchard can register their interest with KVH at email@example.com.
Psa-V was detected in Korea in the mid 1980’s and that strain is now referred to as Biovar 2. This virulent biovar was a contributing factor to the removal of uncovered Hayward orchards on Jeju Island where the Zespri Gold orchards are now located.
A new Psa-V strain has been recently identified in Korea—on the mainland and on Jeju Island. We understand this strain is part of the Biovar 3 group (same group as the New Zealand strain). The Biovar 3 is having an impact on multiple varieties including Hort16A, as has other strains in the past. New Zealand and Korean researchers are working on characterising the bacteria to determine its origin.
Zespri is supporting its Korean growers by providing information and best practice techniques to manage Psa-V.
Almost twice as much rainfall than last year has been recorded in June 2014 at the Te Puke Research Orchard (TPRO) (see graph above). Similar rainfall patterns have occurred in other parts of the country with winter 2014 shaping up to be much wetter than last year.
Many growers will be struggling to complete their normal orchard activities in between this wet weather. The application of protectant sprays before and after pruning is particularly important through this time.
KVH recommends the application of a minimum of five copper sprays during dormancy. Research and experience has shown a strong copper programme over the dormant period has significant advantages the following spring.
It is reported around 500ha of Gold3 orchards have now installed hail netting, with many more growers wanting to install it.
Growers see a number of advantages to protect their crops from wind and hail, including additional Psa-V protection. Good on-orchard shelter reduces physical damage (wounding) which creates Psa-V entry points.
Last week the first nursery audits took place for for the ‘Core Standard’ of the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme (KPCS). Certified plants from participating nurseries will be available for purchase from next week.
By tomorrow (Friday) four nurseries will have been audited in Nelson, Gisborne, and Kerikeri. There will be a short delay pending the outcome of diagnostic tests before plants are available from some of these nurseries.
Audits are carried out by external auditors. However, KVH is maintaining visibility and ensuring consistency of the Scheme by reviewing nursery manuals prior to the audit, and being present at all initial audits.
The KPCS was launched in May this year and means growers will be able to purchase certified kiwifruit plants from participating nurseries, giving them assurance they are investing in the best possible start for their plants.
A list of participating nurseries will be available on the KVH website as nurseries complete the process to sell certified Core Standard plants. For more information visit www.kvh.org.nz/kpcs.
More than 100 growers and industry attended the R&D update in Te Puke on Tuesday. It was encouraging to see so many people, considering it was the first fine day after continuous heavy rain, and growers were probably keen to winter prune their orchards.
Presentations from the meeting are available on the KVH website here and summarised below.
Psa-V situation update and seasonal reminders—Linda Peacock (KVH)
Psa-V product testing trials update—Elaine Gould (Zespri)
Orchard trials update—Mary Black (Zespri)
OPC bud-rot trials—Jayne Chamberlain and Severine Brun (Zespri)
Metabolomics—Greg Clark (Zespri)
At this time of year a lot of kiwifruit wood is sourced and moved for the use of firewood. The movement of kiwifruit wood for firewood use is covered by KVH Protocol—Other Plant Material.
Key movement controls from the Protocol are outlined below.
If you are unsure about the movement of plant material for firewood use, or have any queries, please contact KVH on 0800 665 825 or email firstname.lastname@example.org before you move it.
Those who observe KVH’s weekly statistics will have noticed Psa-V has progressed in Kerikeri recently, with Psa-V identified on seven new orchards in June.
Last week Zespri’s Shane Max, KVH Operations Manager, Peter Mourits and Te Puke grower, Robbie Ellison visited growers on newly infected Kerikeri orchards to discuss the situation and options going forward. The team also held a grower meeting which was attended by more than 50 local growers.
Key points from the Kerikeri visit
During the French spring (April/May) Hayward orchards in the Tarn et Garonne area were expressing severe exudate, causing panic amongst some local growers. KVH Director Craig Thompson visited at this time to understand the situation and his report can be found in the July/August Kiwifruit Journal.
An update from Zespri’s Severine Brun in France, reports those growers who applied a consistent and robust protective spray programme over the past few years have reported little or no Psa-V symptoms; and unlike last spring in France, this spring has been kinder to French growers, with temperatures through June being warmer and drier than the 30-year average.
As a result, less Psa-V symptoms have been observed, flower loss is much lower than last year and growers are generally much more positive about the ability to continue growing kiwifruit in a Psa-V environment.
Hort16A continues to be a badly affected variety and those few growers who are still growing it are trying to achieve another harvest.
Gold3 is looking good, with very limited symptoms, mostly noticed in spring (dry canes and/or exudate on a few vines per block).
Zespri has removed Kasumin® from the Crop Protection Standard (CPS) for the 2015 season while further research is done to confirm the most effective use pattern. This research is expected to confirm the optimal pre-flowering withholding period for Kasumin® and the number of applications allowed in the pre-flowering period.
Zespri has taken a conservative approach to this Psa management tool in this case, as the suite of Psa-targeted products is considered sufficient to manage Psa this season.
Growers can use up to four applications of KeyStrepto™ on producing and non-producing vines for the 2015 season, though no more than two consecutive applications are allowed without using another Psa-targeted product – e.g. copper.
Refer to the KeyStrepto™ User Guide for detailed rules of use. Growers are responsible for ensuring all use conditions are complied with. KVH no longer conducts pre-use audits.
If you have any queries please contact Gordon Skipage at Zespri.
People working on orchards at this time of year can provide extra resource for carrying out monitoring duties. Growers should be alerting their orchard workers to be on the lookout for signs of Psa-V infection, particularly cane dieback and exudate.
Don’t forget hygiene measures should be in place to prevent introduction or spread of infection between plants, rows, blocks and orchards.
The Government Industry Agreement (GIA) Secretariat visited KVH staff today to give an update on the GIA, including where other primary industries were within the process. The GIA Secretariat facilitates implementation of the partnership described in the GIA Deed and acts in the interests of all Deed Signatories.
As reported in the KVH Bulletin (22 May) the kiwifruit industry was the first to sign the GIA Deed on 20 May.
On 22 July, New Zealand Pork will be the next industry to sign the GIA Deed, representing all New Zealand pork producers.
Like the kiwifruit industry, by signing the GIA Deed, NZ Pork is recognising that biosecurity is a major risk to New Zealand pork producers and that their industry is acting responsibly in taking all possible steps to mitigate this risk.
KVH Chief Executive, Barry O’Neil, spent two days in Wellington this week discussing financial arrangements for GIA as part of a joint working group; and the development of the Operational Agreement for Fruit Fly.
Click here for more information about GIA.
Winter is an opportune time for growers to remove visible signs of infection from their orchards, including cane dieback and exudate. Ideally, growers should do this before winter pruning. Cut back 40cm from signs of infection.
Removing infection allows pruners to structure vines accordingly and minimise later potential impacts on production.
Click here to read more about winter protection from Psa-V.
Right: The KVH Psa-V Risk Model forecasts further heavy rainfall in Opotiki
Continuing wet periods across the country are keeping Psa-V risk elevated. Growers should avoid pruning in wet conditions or when rain is imminent. Ensure all pruning cuts are protected prior to the next rainfall event and tools are sanitised between vines. Pruning staff should be asked to report signs of new Psa-V infection. Monitoring of males, especially in high risk blocks should be undertaken.
Consult the KVH Seasonal Management Guide—Autumn/Winter for best practice information and guidance. Growers unable to access their orchards because of wet ground conditions may consider aerial applications of copper. Address areas where soil drainage is an issue. Stressed vines are likely to be more susceptible to Psa-V.
KVH has developed a short one-page summary of key messages for orchard best practice during winter. This summary was distributed to attendees at the recent FON winter field days and is a useful tool to print out and place in staff areas and/or circulate to supervisors and orchard staff.
Growers in the process of removing Hort16A should ensure canopies are well protected with copper sprays to minimise the chances of infection and Psa-V spread. Ideally, remove any Psa-V infected material and dispose of it by on-site burial or burning. If removed canopy is remaining within the block, fine mulching and use of digesters to speed break-down of is highly recommended.
Psa-V can survive for at least 15 weeks on the orchard floor in prunings and infected plant debris, presenting an ongoing Psa-V risk. Removal of this material will benefit new grafts next spring.
This recommendation also applies to any canopies where infection may be present.
Traceability of plant material, whether it is budwood, nursery rootstock or pollen, is fundamental to a successful biosecurity response. It is only by having a complete and comprehensive database of ALL people that move plant material can effective traceability occur.
Budwood suppliers are reminded they must register with KVH annually, before their first budwood collection for the year, including male budwood. Registration is a quick and simple process. Please do your part to help the kiwifruit industry become better prepared for future biosecurity incursions by registering with KVH.
A reminder to all when travelling overseas: be vigilant with biosecurity measures particularly if you have been visiting kiwifruit orchards. Shoes must be free of soil material and clothes worn in an orchard environment must be washed before entering New Zealand orchards.
On arrival into New Zealand it is important you declare any visits to foreign orchards to MPI Border staff so they can ensure all necessary measures are taken to prevent the accidental introduction of unwanted pathogens that could be devastating to our industry (such as Ceratocystis fimbriata).
Ceratocystis fimbriata is a fungal pathogen causing widespread damage to the Brazilian kiwifruit industry (see KVH Bulletin, 20 Feb). The disease is of significant concern to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry and efforts are being made to increase our understanding of the disease—both to prevent it from entering our borders and to effectively manage it should it arrive.
Efforts that are being made to understand this pathogen include:
A full literature review on Ceratocystis fimbriata on kiwifruit and other crops by an international expert in this field. This report is due in early 2015 and will include;
Another research project being developed will use molecular techniques to determine the similarity of the Brazilian kiwifruit strain with the strain found in New Zealand kumara. This project would identify any underlying basis for differences in pathogenicity between the strains and would result in a DNA based detection test.
As advised in the KVH Bulletin (5 June) Psa-V was recently identified in Japan. To date, the disease has been identified in six Japanese prefectures: Ehime, Fukuoka, Saga, Okayama, Wakayama and Shizuoka.
This week officials from Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) visited KVH and Zespri to learn more about how to best manage the disease. The Japanese visit to KVH included an update on Psa-V in New Zealand; best practice orchard management; an overview of the NPMP; movement controls; the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme; and communications to industry and growers.
Around one percent of the total kiwifruit acreage in the infected areas has been affected by Psa-V in Japan. Control measures include cutting out and disposing of infected material and proactive spray control.
A second Japanese MAFF visit also occurred during the week in Wellington with MPI to discuss future export conditions of New Zealand pollen and budwood.
It’s possible for Psa-V to change genetically in order to develop resistance to chemicals or compounds that are currently used by growers to manage the disease. In other words, they would no longer be effective against Psa-V.
As few products are currently known to have efficacy against Psa-V, the loss of one or more of these due to resistance would make Psa-V much more difficult to manage. This would be a significant issue for the kiwifruit industry.
To date, Psa-V resistance has not been identified in New Zealand kiwifruit. However, overseas experience has seen bacterial resistance develop against copper and antibiotics. It can happen as a result of products not being used properly, or being over-used.
Ongoing testing as part of the KVH/Zespri R&D programme is underway to identify early any strains of Psa-V showing potential resistance.
It’s essential the kiwifruit industry is aware of this potential issue, and carries out best-practice management to avoid resistance.
Preventing Psa-V developing compound resistance
Growers and the industry can help reduce the risk of Psa-V developing compound resistance by following these simple steps.
A coordinated approach incorporating the above strategies across the entire industry will reduce the risk of resistance developing.
Kiwifruit growers who believe spraying is providing no control, or suspect compound resistance on their orchard, should contact KVH on 0800 665 825 or email email@example.com.
KVH will then assess the situation and carry out additional testing for resistance as required.
Heavy rain over the last two weeks means Psa-V inoculum levels are likely to rise, increasing the potential for infection spread.
Growers need to be proactively monitoring their orchards to detect any signs of infection early. Three new orchards have been identified with Psa-V in the Kerikeri region in the last week. All had cane dieback symptoms on Gold3.
Pruners and grafters are working on orchards during this time of year, and if trained to identify Psa-V symptoms, can provide another opportunity for symptoms to be identified and removed.
Growers must be vigilant about who they allow onto their orchards—both where they have come from and what equipment/tools they are bringing onto the orchard.
KVH have protocols in place to restrict high-risk movements and growers need to be aware of these. Strict attention to orchard hygiene will minimise the risk of disease transferring between vines, orchards and regions.
With pruning and grafting activities taking place, all growers should be familiar with the KVH Protocol—Budwood regarding movement controls.
If considering planting rootstock growers need to be sourcing plants from either KVH Accredited or KVH Registered Nurseries and ensuring that the movement protocols are adhered to.
Industry feedback from the KVH Communications Survey strongly suggested the search function on the KVH website, and in particular within the R&D section, needs improvement.
After investigating limited options it was decided implementing a dedicated ‘google custom search engine’ on the KVH website will be the most effective option. This option will effectively increase the ability of users to find KVH website content.
However, to use the google search to the best of its ability, and to avoid breaching Google’s Terms and Conditions, the ‘restricted’ documents on the website will need to be made available to all website users. Therefore:
If growers have any concerns, please contact KVH on 0800 665 825 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
As advised in last week’s KVH Bulletin, the Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines (ACVM) group within the Ministry for Primary Industries has approved a limited-label claim for KeyStrepto™ for use as a Psa-V protectant on producing and non-producing kiwifruit vines.
The conditions of use for KeyStrepto™ include:
Growers must refer to the KeyStrepto™ User Guide for detailed rules of use, including sward management, notification, signage, record keeping etc.
Growers are now responsible for ensuring the conditions of use are complied with. KVH will no longer be conducting pre-use audits.
Zespri will once again test 100 percent of supplying orchards for more than 300 residues – including antibiotics – in the 2015 season.
A KVH meeting in North-West Auckland on Tuesday was well attended by local growers and postharvest representatives. The North-West Auckland region has had no further Psa-V symptoms identified since a one hectare block of Hort16A was removed in November 2013.
The meeting covered the importance of strict hygiene practises over the high-risk winter pruning period; and the need for a proactive spray programmes to ensure orchards are well protected from the risk of Psa-V establishing.
Congratulations to Patrick Malley from Whangarei * who took out the 2014 BOP Young Grower of the Year title at an awards dinner in Mount Maunganui last night.
Patrick competed against four other young up-and-coming horticultural leaders for the title in a series of practical and theoretical activities during the day; and a speech competition and quiz during the evening gala dinner. KVH’s Chris Clement was runner up.
Minister for Primary Industries, Nathan Guy, was the Guest Speaker at the event attended by almost 200 industry supporters and presented Patrick with the award (pictured above).
Patrick will go on to represent the Bay of Plenty in the National competition against other regional winners for title of NZ Young Grower.
* Contestants from outside of the BOP can enter the competition if they do not have a competition in their own region.
This week Primary Industries Minister Nathan Guy announced 29 new biosecurity graduates will further strengthen New Zealand’s biosecurity system, and help safeguard New Zealand’s primary industries from pests and diseases. This includes 24 new quarantine inspectors and five new dog handlers to be based between Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch.
Click here to read The Minister’s media release.
This means growers will soon be able to purchase certified kiwifruit plants from participating nurseries, giving them assurance they are investing in the best possible start when establishing new vines.
Hundreds of growers and people attending this year’s Mystery Creek Fieldays have visited the Zespri tent over the last two days to sample fruit and hear from Zespri, KVH and NZKGI representatives during the daily lunchtime presentations.
KVH operational and biosecurity staff are available on site with information about KVH and its Psa-V and biosecurity roles.
Feedback from growers has been very positive, with many growers keen to share their knowledge and experience on how they are protecting their orchards.
For those planning on attending the Fieldays, KVH will be onsite again tomorrow (Friday) and Chief Executive Barry O’Neil will be giving a short update during the lunchtime presentations.
Click here for more information about Mystery Creek Fieldays.
The second border pathway to feature the KVH profile series is International Mail. Each year 40 to 50 million mail items are processed at New Zealand’s International Mail Centre, located near Auckland Airport. MPI’s biosecurity team use risk profiling, x-rays and detector dogs to screen and process incoming mail on this pathway and seize around 40,000 biosecurity risk items annually.
Mail is considered a low risk pathway for the entry of fruit fly host items; and in the past 12 months only one fruit fly host item has been intercepted on this pathway. However, as a precautionary measure in response to this year’s Queensland Fruit Fly finds in Whangarei, MPI have increased detector dog presence to 100 percent coverage for all high risk mail items.
Click here to learn more about how biosecurity is managed on the international mail pathway.
Using Gold3 potted plants, this trial was to determine the efficacy of a range of elicitors and forchlorfenuron products in inducing a plant immune response to Psa-V.
All the elicitors, except Alexin, significantly reduced leaf spot in Gold3 group up to 37 days post Psa-V inoculation (p < 0.05). None of the elicitors significantly reduced secondary symptoms. Actigard™, which was used as a positive control, had the greatest effect in reducing leaf spotting and secondary symptoms compared with the Psa-V group.
Testing the products in this trial on other kiwifruit varieties may result in a different response to ones observed in this trial, as an elicitor response may be kiwifruit variety-specific.
Click here to read the full report on ‘Latest R&D Reports’ on the KVH website.
The Agricultural Compounds and Veterinary Medicines (ACVM) group within the Ministry for Primary Industries has approved a limited-label claim for KeyStrepto™ for use as a Psa-V protectant on producing and non-producing kiwifruit vines.
The conditions of use for KeyStrepto™ include:
Growers must refer to the KeyStrepto™ User Guide for detailed rules of use, including sward management, notification, signage, record keeping etc.
Zespri will once again test 100 percent of supplying orchards for more than 300 residues – including antibiotics – in the 2015 season.
Due to the severe storm being experienced around the country, growers should be protecting their vines by applying a protective copper spray as soon as possible following the rain. Storm damage, including multiple leaf scars from leaves being stripped from vines, create Psa-V entry points.
Copper applications have shown to be the most effective control of Psa-V during the post-harvest and dormancy periods.
Follow label instructions and use winter rates.
Growers with high-risk blocks, including those showing Psa-V infection and young vines, may also consider antibacterial products.
KVH recently reviewed the boundaries of existing Recovery regions within the Bay of Plenty.
After consultation with grower groups and the KVH Board, it was decided to combine Tauranga East and Tauranga West into one region: Tauranga.
Tauranga was originally one region when Psa-V was first establishing in the Bay of Plenty. As Psa-V progression differed across the Bay of Plenty, and progression control was better managed in smaller geographical areas, a decision was made in 2012 to split Tauranga into two regions.
However, now that more than 75 percent of orchards across these two regions are Psa-V positive it has been combined once again into one region.
The KVH Protocol—Budwood has been updated and is available on the KVH website.
This now allows the movement of budwood from Psa-V positive orchards to other Psa-V positive orchards for all Recovery regions subject to meeting requirements of the Protocol. These changes apply to all kiwifruit varietal budwood. Plant variety movement approval will still be required from variety owners.
Click here to view the updated Protocol.
Welcome to the new format of the KVH Bulletin. This new format allows readers to view content at a glance and choose to read specific articles most relevant or of interest to them.
By clicking on the ‘read more’ button under each summary, users will be linked to the full article on the KVH website.
A full, print-friendly copy of the KVH Bulletin remains available to those who prefer a printable version on the KVH website here.
KVH Bulletin articles and latest news will also automatically appear on the KVH website homepage. This way, the latest news and updates will be available to website users as soon as they arrive on the KVH website.
KVH continues to work with Zespri and ACVM to confirm label claims and use conditions for KeyStrepto™ and Kasumin® post 15 June 2014. Currently both products cannot be used before 15 June unless a Justified Approval (JA) is issued by Zespri, and only under extenuating circumstances.
Unless we receive confirmation from ACVM as to the use condition, this date is likely to be extended.
KVH will advise growers of progress through the KVH Bulletin.
Psa-V infection has been confirmed in Japan.
The disease was first found last month in the Ehime Prefecture, Japan’s largest kiwifruit production area; and soon after was confirmed in the Southern area of the Fukuoka Prefectural.
Growers in both regions have cut out all infected vines.
The Prefectural Governments together with agricultural officials and advisors are investigating the extent of the spread; and advising growers of best-practice control measures including monitoring for early detection, cutting out infected material and tool sterilisation.
Emergency financial assistance has been offered to kiwifruit growers’ for disease prevention measures.
Coromandel harvest is now complete and most crops have achieved close to their estimate. Growers have been actively applying copper and Actigard™ post-harvest.
Psa-V symptoms have recently increased, particularly in Hort16A and Gold9 orchards. One of the original Psa-V Gold9 sites is described as 95 percent clear of Psa-V symptoms. This follows an aggressive copper programme.
M33 males in a Gold9 orchard are expressing cane and shoot dieback. However M91 males in the same block appear to be clear of symptoms.
Growers are reporting Gold3 as clear of symptoms, except for those that were grafted onto heavily infected rootstock.
Conversion of Hort16A orchards will continue this winter. Some Hort16A growers whose orchards are not showing symptoms will continue for a 2015 crop.
A Coromandel kiwifruit grower recently received an email from California-based company Pollen Technologies, offering to supply kiwifruit pollen for artificial pollination. It appears the pollen is sourced from either the United States or China with samples available upon request.
KVH immediately alerted MPI Imports and Exports Group (plants) of the email and contacted the Californian company to inform them that: importation of any pollen into New Zealand for plant breeding purposes is currently prohibited; the company should not solicit enquires from New Zealand; and to immediately stop all promotion of their pollen products and services in New Zealand.
KVH included information regarding the National Psa-V Risk Management Plan’s rules and risk management around artificial pollination within New Zealand.
MPI also contacted the supplier to confirm pollen imports are strictly prohibited.
The company has confirmed it has not sent pollen to New Zealand and it will abide with KVH requests and not seek orders or offer samples of pollen to New Zealand kiwifruit growers.
If any growers receive any further offers of pollen or samples of pollen from a Californian, Chinese, or any overseas based company, then please alert KVH and MPI immediately. The MPI contact should be made through the MPI exotic pest and disease hotline: 0800 80 99 66.
2014 Zespri / KVH Potted Plant Field Trial Report—Hort16A trial
This trial was established to determine the most effective time to apply Kasumin, at label rate from 14 days prior to, and up to seven days post, a Psa-V infection event. Additionally, a number of other products were tested including a copper product Ag Copp 75 and Nanospada 500. Two seaweed extracts in rotation with copper were also tested to determine if seaweed extracts could reduce phytotoxicity and Psa symptoms.
A number of conclusions were made from this trial:
Click here to read the full report on the KVH website.
On 29 May Kiwifruit Vine Health launched the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme (KPCS) with the release of the Core Standard (the first of two Standards under the scheme).
Nurseries can now join the KPCS and certify kiwifruit plants to the ‘Core’ Standard. (A second ‘High Health’ Standard will be available toward the end of 2014).
This means growers will soon be able to purchase certified kiwifruit plants from participating nurseries, giving them assurance they are investing in the best possible start for their plants. Click here to see a fact sheet for growers on the Scheme.
For more information visit www.kvh.org.nz/kpcs.
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