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R&D News
31 May 2018
New research reports added to website
31 May 2018
One of the key lessons from the Psa response was the need to have rapid diagnostic tests available for our most significant biosecurity threats. These tests enable us to quickly confirm the...
New research reports added to website
31 May 2018

One of the key lessons from the Psa response was the need to have rapid diagnostic tests available for our most significant biosecurity threats. These tests enable us to quickly confirm the presence or absence of a particular organism if a grower reports unusual symptoms to us, and if we move into response mode determine the extent of infection.

Developing these tests for specific organisms is therefore one of our priorities for the biosecurity research portfolio. Two new reports have recently been put up on our website highlighting research outputs in this area, including:

• Evaluating RT-PCR tests for Pelargonium Zonate Spot Virus, a virus that is known to infect kiwifruit in Europe and reduce plant productivity. See the report here.

• Development of a detection assay for Brazilian Wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata), the soil borne pathogen that has caused significant impacts to kiwifruit growers in Brazil. See the report here.

R&D News
22 February 2018
Latest Psa research now available
22 February 2018
KVH makes decisions and bases advice on key research learnings, industry knowledge and experience. The scientific research publications that drive our policies and management advice are added to...
Latest Psa research now available
22 February 2018

KVH makes decisions and bases advice on key research learnings, industry knowledge and experience.

The scientific research publications that drive our policies and management advice are added to our website as they are finalised. Growers are encouraged to look them up and have a browse of the many different reports we make available.

Recently added:

·         A paper on monitoring effectiveness of wound protectants against Psa. View the report here. 

We mentioned the paper in a January Bulletin we ran a story about new research monitoring the effectiveness of wound protectants against Psa finding that the current grower practice of spraying girdling wounds with a solution of label rate copper was sufficient to prevent infection of girdles.

The report also notes that neither copper paste nor Inocbloc paste should be applied to girdling wounds. Copper paste did not provide protection and application of Inocbloc interfered with wound healing. These products were however the most effective wound protectant on pruning cuts.

Click here to see an enlarged image from the report, showing copper paste treated girdling wounds on Actinidia chinensis var. chinesis ‘Zesy002’ (Gold3) three months after application.

·         A paper on the efficacy of Ambitious on Psa on Hayward has been added under the CPPU and elicitors categories. View the report here.

 

R&D News
22 February 2018
The successful science behind our greatest threat
22 February 2018
Award-winning research behind the kiwifruit industry’s response to Psa is a big reason for the industry’s current success. A team from Plant & Food Research, who were mobilised in...
The successful science behind our greatest threat
22 February 2018

Award-winning research behind the kiwifruit industry’s response to Psa is a big reason for the industry’s current success.

A team from Plant & Food Research, who were mobilised in late 2010 when Psa was first discovered in the Bay of Plenty, has been awarded the 2017 Prime Minister’s Science Prize for their rapid and successful response.



As we know, the arrival of Psa into New Zealand had a major impact on the kiwifruit industry and while we responded strongly with every resource we had at the time, we were not prepared to deal with such a significant incursion.

The research undertaken by the Plant & Food Research team involved an intensive screening programme of Gold3, which included hundreds of genetically-diverse varieties being evaluated to find specific cultivars that had increased tolerance and met the needs of growers, as well as consumers.

Importantly, Plant & Food Research were also the first in the world to develop diagnostics that enabled rapid testing of orchards. A range of agrichemicals were also tested that helped inform growers day-to-day orchard management plans.

Growers use science every day on their orchards as part of best practice and the ambitious standards that were implemented during the Psa response have become the norm. As an industry, we have made sure that everyone who works on or visits a kiwifruit orchard is aware of biosecurity risk and how to manage it.

The New Zealand kiwifruit industry is now considered the world leader in Psa management. We must take forward the learnings from the Psa response, especially what important scientific research like that undertaken by Plant & Food Research has told us.

Investment in science to understand the nature of significant biosecurity threats, and developing tools for their management should they arrive, is a big priority. KVH and Zespri have already invested over $16million in Psa research and innovation to understand how we can better manage the disease and this year we are spending $1million in research for other biosecurity threats. 

R&D News
15 June 2017
Fresh research added to KVH website
15 June 2017
Research supports the value of applying winter coppers in managing Psa. A research project has determined the source of leaf inoculum in Hayward from bud-break to senescence and shows Psa can be...
Fresh research added to KVH website
15 June 2017

Research supports the value of applying winter coppers in managing Psa.

A research project has determined the source of leaf inoculum in Hayward from bud-break to senescence and shows Psa can be found on both the outside of winter buds and within the buds themselves as they expand in Spring. Read more here.

In a linked project, molecular tools detected overwintering Psa on kiwifruit vines and quantified levels of inoculum before and after application of winter copper sprays. Copper was shown to reduce the overwintering Psa inoculum load on the vines. This research shows winter coppers reduce populations of Psa that we cannot see but which we know contribute to the Psa disease cycle. Read more here.

Research backing kiwifruit management strategies.

Two further reports added to the KVH website this week illustrate the value of research in improving understanding of orchard management best practice.

A pre-flower girdling study showed girdling vines 30 days before flowering resulted in significantly less bud rot than in non-girdled vines. This was the case for both Hayward and Green 14 vines. The research also found Psa to be the dominant microbial species and most likely cause of infected buds. Read more here.

In a study to better understand how root pruning may impact vine susceptibility to Psa, metabolites found in leaves following root pruning were studied. Increased concentrations of procyanidin metabolites were seen and further work is under way to see if this is part of a disease response within the vine.  This response is similar to that observed by others studying metabolic responses of plants to stress. Read more here. 

R&D News
18 May 2017
Potential new frost fan technology
18 May 2017
KVH supports use of all technology available to growers that will avoid frost damage to vines which often results in Psa infection. Japanese representatives of a company that develops frost...
Potential new frost fan technology
18 May 2017

KVH supports use of all technology available to growers that will avoid frost damage to vines which often results in Psa infection.

Japanese representatives of a company that develops frost protection fans are in New Zealand this week meeting with growers about their new fan systems which they first presented at the Te Puke A&P show in February.

Their fans are used widely across high value tea plantations in Japan.

The team first visited KVH and Zespri two years ago to learn more about New Zealand kiwifruit growing, climatic conditions, and how they may be able to use their technology to support orchard management.

Trial fans have since been put in two kiwifruit orchards in the Te Puke region which will be tested again this year. A trial that has been in place for three years at a vineyard in Martinborough is proving successful. The fans are most applicable to small unprotected blocks or perhaps large blocks with pockets unprotected by current windmills. Blocks with challenges re water consents or looking to avoid water frost protection due to soil issues may also benefit.

Visit Fritons to find out more about the new technology.  

R&D News
4 May 2017
Latest Psa research available
4 May 2017
KVH is an organisation basing its advice and decisions on industry knowledge, research and experience.   The scientific research publications that drive our policy and management advice are...
Latest Psa research available
4 May 2017
KVH is an organisation basing its advice and decisions on industry knowledge, research and experience.
 
The scientific research publications that drive our policy and management advice are added to our website – do look them up and have a browse of the many different reports we make available.
 
Recently added under the resistance and copper categories are papers on the evolution of copper resistance in Psa, and analysis of Psa from 80 genomes to strengthen understanding of the diseases evolution.
 
R&D News
4 May 2017
Actigard trial results
4 May 2017
Last year field trials were conducted on Gold 3 vines to determine whether the application of Actigard, at recommended application rates, post-harvest could impact components of yield in the...
Actigard trial results
4 May 2017
Last year field trials were conducted on Gold 3 vines to determine whether the application of Actigard, at recommended application rates, post-harvest could impact components of yield in the following season. 

Winter bud numbers; flower numbers and type; and fruit size and shape were measured to identify potential impacts.
 
Trials also included application of Actigard at rates up to double label recommendation, and at a two-week interval between repeat applications, which is seven days short of the 21-day interval recommended on the product label.
 
Results showed a negligible impact on components of yield in the following season when Actigard was applied at the recommended rate immediately post-harvest and when reapplied to leaves of good photosynthetic capacity pre-leaf fall.
 
In three of the four trial sites there appeared to be a slight trend for a small reduction in the number of side flowers per cane following Actigard treatment. 
 
Full details of the trial will be available on the KVH website shortly but in summary the results support recommendations outlined by Syngenta for autumn application of Actigard. These are as follows:
  • Apply 200 g/ha of Actigard (plus copper) immediately post-harvest as a foliar spray. Ensure thorough coverage of canopy and leaf stalks.
  • If canopy condition allows (ie leaves are still green) and infection risk remains high, reapply Actigard 21 days later to extend protection into the leaf-fall period.
  • Do not apply Actigard to vines that are stressed due to drought, excessive moisture, cold weather or disease.
  • Avoid risk of spray drift to unharvested fruit and clean sprayers thoroughly.
 
R&D News
30 November 2016
PhD student probes Psa research
30 November 2016
Over the past three months, KVH has hosted British PhD student, Stuart Woodcock (pictured) from the John Innes Centre in England. Stuart has been in New Zealand undertaking a review of the research...
PhD student probes Psa research
30 November 2016

Over the past three months, KVH has hosted British PhD student, Stuart Woodcock (pictured) from the John Innes Centre in England. Stuart has been in New Zealand undertaking a review of the research and development surrounding Psa during an internship as part of his PhD, which involves researching pseudomonas bacteria, particularly Psa and its ability to cause infection within plants.   

Psa has been estimated to have cost over $1 billion to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry since 2010. Although productivity has recovered, Psa remains a prevalent threat as the majority of orchards harbour the bacteria, with only one kiwifruit growing region has yet to exhibit infection. 
 
More recently, the use of other biological organisms to control Psa have also been trialled and included into a control programme. All these products are effective to various extents, but it has been found that some samples of Psa has developed low level resistance to some of the controls, which could potentially make them ineffective.
 
Working with representatives from KVH, Zespri, Plant and Food Research and growers, Stuart has reviewed past and ongoing research addressing the threat of Psa to New Zealand kiwifruit. He has also identified areas where research needs to be strengthened and highlighted new and novel areas which may be beneficial in combatting Psa.
 
Stuart said his time in New Zealand has proven to be extremely valuable in his studies and continual learning development.
 
“It has been great to get out and about in various parts of the country to see how orchards are managing Psa and talking to orchardists about their control methods,” he said.
 
“I’ve been working closely with KVH and Zespri over the past few months to really get into the complexities of Psa and I hope my review will be useful in the continued management of this invasive infection.”
 
KVH Chief Executive, Barry O’Neil, said he was looking forward to further investigating the findings of the review.
 
“It has been fantastic to have someone with Stuart’s depth of knowledge working with us at KVH. He has identified some key areas of past research which can look to be strengthened in time and also highlighted some innovative ways which could potentially help with the ongoing Psa management.”
 
“Stuart’s review is part of the continuing research and development KVH delivers annually in collaboration with Zespri,” he said.
 
 
R&D News
25 August 2016
New research highlights value of wound protectants
25 August 2016
Research trials, designed to test if wound protectants could provide effective protection against infection by Psa after pruning, have shown copper paste and InocBloc paste consistently protected...
New research highlights value of wound protectants
25 August 2016
Research trials, designed to test if wound protectants could provide effective protection against infection by Psa after pruning, have shown copper paste and InocBloc paste consistently protected wounds in both potted plant trials and in Chieftain male vines in the field. These treatments, applied immediately after pruning, provided significant wound protection in both winter and spring. 
 
The research also showed that where wound protectants were not applied, the incidence of Chieftain kiwifruit canes naturally infected by Psa in winter increased from 3.3% to 50% in the two weeks after wounding. In spring, the incidence increased from 30% to 72%. This supports messages to apply effective wound protectants immediately after pruning to reduce infection of vines in the field.
 
InocBloc paste is a pine based product. It is listed in the Zespri crop protection standard and is in the process of registration with BioGro. Organic growers interested in using this product must obtain approval prior to use and should contact their BioGro auditor or the BioGro office.
 
Click here for the research report.

R&D News
24 July 2015
R&D reports: 2014-15 potted plant trial results
24 July 2015
Elicitors on Gold3 potted plants, January to March 2015 Field trials on potted Gold3 plants tested efficacy of a range of elicitors in inducing a plant immune response to Psa. TNL3454 (at higher...
R&D reports: 2014-15 potted plant trial results
24 July 2015

Elicitors on Gold3 potted plants, January to March 2015
Field trials on potted Gold3 plants tested efficacy of a range of elicitors in inducing a plant immune response to Psa. TNL3454 (at higher concentrations) and AB48414 showed a level of Psa control comparable to Actigard™ for up to six weeks post-Psa inoculation. Citrox BioAlexin showed some significant Psa control four weeks post inoculation. This product could offer organic growers an elicitor option. However, further trials to prove consistent efficacy would be advisable. ProAct and Silver combined and Luna Care did not show efficacy.

  • Click here to read the report.

Psa control products on Bruno potted plants, December 2014 to January 2015
Field trials on potted Bruno plants further tested the efficacy of a range of potential Psa protectants. At the recommended concentration, Nanospada significantly decreased leaf spotting for up to three weeks post Psa inoculation. When diluted, Nanospada had no significant effect, supporting the use of the recommended rate. Another product, TNL3214, significantly reduced leaf spotting throughout the trial. KOF products only provided control when combined with Streptomycin. 

  • Click here to read the report.
R&D News
24 July 2015
R&D reports: Efficacy of Ambitious for controlling Psa on mature Hayward
24 July 2015
Additional research to determine the efficacy of Ambitious for controlling Psa on mature Hayward vines is now available on the R&D section of the KVH website. Ambitious currently holds a limited...
R&D reports: Efficacy of Ambitious for controlling Psa on mature Hayward
24 July 2015

Additional research to determine the efficacy of Ambitious for controlling Psa on mature Hayward vines is now available on the R&D section of the KVH website.

Ambitious currently holds a limited label claim for the control of Psa in kiwifruit. An application to ACVM for a full label claim will be made this season. Work is still needed to better understand the mode of action of this product.

The efficacy of Ambitious 10SL on mature Hayward Vines for controlling Pseudomonas syringae actinidiae, by Fruitfed Supplies
Trials testing the efficacy of Ambitious for controlling Psa on mature Hayward vines showed Ambitious was effective in reducing the severity of leaf spotting and performed similarly to Actigard. Ambitious did not appear to show any efficacy on reducing the levels of bud rot and bud loss.

  • Click here for the report.


Ambitious 10SL efficacy on Psa disease on Hayward kiwifruit 2014-15, by HortEvaluation
Trials at two high inoculum sites in the Bay of Plenty showed application of Ambitious mid-season (between budbreak and flowering) significantly reduced Psa leaf spot on mature Hayward kiwifruit vines. No significant differences in percentage flowers retained, fruit set or reject fruit type were observed between trial and control plots.

  • Click here for the report.
R&D News
9 July 2015
R&D report on KVH website - Autumn spraying for protection of Psa-V
9 July 2015
This trial was established to determine the effects of an intensive autumn spray protection programme on Gold3 and Hort16A. It was difficult to separate treatment effects as the Gold3 site had little...
R&D report on KVH website - Autumn spraying for protection of Psa-V
9 July 2015

This trial was established to determine the effects of an intensive autumn spray protection programme on Gold3 and Hort16A. It was difficult to separate treatment effects as the Gold3 site had little infection and the Hort16A site had too much infection. There was a trend for treatment programmes including a full programme with coppers, foliar applied elicitors and KeyStrepto™ to reduce the effects of Psa-V by comparison with other lesser treatment programmes.

Click here to view the report.

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Kiwifruit Vine Health

Suite 3, Level 1, Customhouse Building
314 Maunganui Road, Mount Maunganui
(entrance cnr Totara and Rata Street)
PO Box 4246, Mount Maunganui, 3149
New Zealand

Tel:  0800 665 825
Fax: 07 574 7591

Email: info@kvh.org.nz